Isaac Newton

The Writing Assignment:During the 18th and 19th centuries (1700s and 1800s) philosophers, academics, politicians, scientists, and revolutionaries redefined the concept of the individual and the relationship between citizens and their governments during an intellectual revolution known as the Enlightenment. The new ideas put forth by the Enlightenment thinkers had a profound effect on not only the societies of the western world but also on humanity as a whole. Indeed, new ideologies and concepts about the natural rights of man led to numerous social, political, and economic changes across time and space.   While in America we learn about the thinkers who created our nation, such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison, in US History, we tend to gloss over, or worse ignore, the European thinkers who inspired this generation of American intellectuals.  Using primary sources and academic articles, you are going to examine one of the philosophers, academics, politicians, scientists, or revolutionaries that either inspired the founders to action or followed the founders’ example in their own countries.  For this assignment, you must research one of the individuals listed below and use at least three primary sources, two journal articles from the library databases, a book from the “Very Short Introductions” database, and the textbook to write your essayThe Question:Examine and analyze the philosophical and ideological understanding of an Enlightenment thinker and discuss the impact their ideas had on both their own contemporaneous societies and on the future of western civilization. To fully answer this question, please craft your essay response in the following parts:Part I – Introduction. Provide the reader with a brief overview of your particular thinker, their place in the Enlightenment movement, their basic ideas and your overall argument about the impact of their philosophical ideology in history.Part II – Examine the thinker. Tell the reader who the thinker is.  Provide a brief introduction and biography as well as an analysis of their philosophical ideologies. Consider the historical context of the time, their nationality, their education level, their religious views, and their specific influences. Be sure to consider their views on such important concepts as slavery, colonization, women’s rights, governance, and religion.Part III – Examine the thinker’s contribution to the Enlightenment. Provide the reader with specific examples of the impact of the thinker’s concepts on the people of their day and the societies in which they lived. Consider their publications, public/political roles, philosophical ideas, and their influence on specific events.Part IV – Examine the lasting impact of the thinker and his/her ideas.  Provide the reader with an analysis of the sociological and political impacts of the thinker’s philosophical treatises. Consider how the thinker’s ideas have influenced later individuals, societies, governments, and ideologies. For example, are the ideas outmoded or do they still inform a modern understanding of society?Part V – Conclusion. Summarize your overall assertion regarding your thinker and his/her contributions and legacy.The Format:Essays should be doubled-spaced, size 12 font, with one-inch margins all around.Essays must be a minimum of 3 page and should be a maximum of 5 pages (not including Cover page or Bibliography) The essay should have a cover page as per Chicago Manual of Style guidelines.Each page should include your name and a page number in the top right-hand corner of each page.All in-text references to sources must be footnoted as per Chicago Manual of Style guidelines.You must use at least three primary sources, two journal articles, a “Very Short Introduction” book, and the textbook.All sources must be included in a bibliography as per Chicago Manual of Style guidelines.Thinker to be written about – ISAAC NEWTONPrimary Sources for this assignment can include books, articles, essays, letters, speeches, and other documents written by your thinker.

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