Nsci 281 week 7 final exam nsci281 week 7 final exam nsci/281week 7

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Final Examination

  1. Serum is ____ while albumin is ____. 

a.     a blood gas; blood clots

b.    the liquid portion of blood; the cells

c.     mostly protein; the matrix

d.    site for antibodies; a regulator of blood osmolality

e.     the cellular portion of blood; acellular components

 

  1. Which of the following is another name for WBC? 

a.     erythrocyte

b.    reticulocyte

c.     leukocyte

d.    thrombocyte

e.     monocyte

 

  1. In coagulation, 

a.     platelets convert to fibrin.

b.    factor XII is activated.

c.     ADP and thromboxanes stimulate other platelets to become activated.

d.    activated platelets are connected by fibrinogen.

e.     prostaglandin production is inhibited.

  1. On the diagram of RBC production, what does “E” represent? 

a.     increased blood oxygen

b.    decreased blood oxygen

c.     erythropoietin

d.    kidney

e.     red bone marrow

                                                                                  

  1. The atrium 

a.     is a four-chambered muscular pump.

b.    is a thin walled, blood receiving chamber

c.     is posterior to the trachea.

d.    lies mostly to the right of the midline of the sternum.

e.     has a superior apex and an inferior base.

 

  1. Blood in the right ventricle will enter the _____. 

a.     Aorta

b.    right atrium

c.     pulmonary arteries

d.    pulmonary trunk

e.     pulmonary veins

 

  1. Which of the following is matched correctly? 

a.     closure of sodium channels – threshold

b.    opening of calcium slow channels – repolarization

c.     closing of calcium slow channels – plateau phase

d.    opening of potassium channels – depolarization

e.     opening of sodium fast channels – depolarization

 

  1. Closure of the aortic valve would give rise to 

a.     the first heart sound.

b.    the second heart sound.

c.     a heart murmur.

d.    an extra heart beat.

e.     end-systolic volume.

 

  1. Identify structure “B” on the heart diagram. 

a.     left atrium

b.    aortic semilunar valve

c.     bicuspid (mitral) valve

d.    right atrium

e.     pulmonary semilunar valve

                                                                                         

  1. Pulmonary blood vessels transport blood 

a.     from the left ventricle to the lungs.

b.    from the left ventricle through the body to the left atrium.

c.     from the left ventricle through the body to the right atrium.

d.    from the right ventricle through the lungs to the right atrium.

e.     from the right ventricle through the lungs to the left atrium.

 

  1. Arteries 

a.     have thick, many layered walls

b.    carry blood away from the heart.

c.     carry blood under very high pressure.

d.    may contain valves and are lined with endothelium.

e.     are described as strong, rigid vessels that always carry oxygenated blood.

 

  1. Veins that return blood from the digestive organs drain into the 

a.     brachiocephalic vein.

b.    superior vena cava.

c.     hepatic portal vein.

d.    azygos vein.

e.     pulmonary arteries.

 

 

  1. When the blood pressure is high, normal blood vessels will 

a.     collapse.

b.    expand.

c.     be hypotensive.

d.    increase in blood flow.

e.     increase in peripheral resistance.

 

  1. The lymphatic system differs from the cardiovascular system in that 

a.     the lymph capillaries do not normally contain formed elements.

b.    the lymphatic vessels have their own “pump” to assist flow.

c.     lymph capillaries do not contain any fluid.

d.    lymph capillaries allow free movement of fluid in and out of the capillaries.

e.     lymph circulates fluids and cardiovascular does not.  

 

  1. The spleen contains _____ , which is an RBC reservoir. 

a.     red pulp

b.    white pulp

c.     splenic cavity

d.    splenic trabeculae

e.     blood-spleen barrier

 

  1. Innate immunity is

a.     inborn.

b.    adaptive.

c.     formed by antibodies.

d.    part of complement.

e.     controlled by plasma proteins.

  1. What does “B” represent on the diagram? 

a.     spleen

b.    thymus

c.     thoracic duct

d.    axillary lymph node

e.    inguinal lymph node

     

  1. Internal respiration refers to the 

 

a.     movement of air into and out of the lungs.

b.    transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

c.     gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood.

d.    gas exchange between the blood and the tissues.

e.     respiration at the cellular level.

  1. Arrange the following structures in the order air passes through them during EXPIRATION: 

    1: alveolar ducts

    2: alveolus

    3: respiratory bronchiole

    4: terminal bronchiole 

a.     1, 2, 3, 4

b.    3, 2, 1, 4

c.     4, 3, 1, 2

d.    2, 1, 3, 4

e.     4, 3, 2, 1

 

  1. Most oxygen is transported in the blood 

a.     in the form of bicarbonate ions.

b.    bound to albumin compounds.

c.     bound to hemoglobin.

d.    dissolved in the plasma.

e.     by the leukocytes.

 

  1. The diagram illustrates the major regulatory mechanisms of ventilation. What mechanism does “C” represent? 

a.     receptors for touch, temperature, pain stimuli

b.    medullary chemoreceptors

c.     Hering-Breuer reflex

d.    carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors

e.     proprioceptors

 

 

 

 

 

                                                            

  1. Which of the following is the purpose for breathing? 

 

a.     food selection

b.    regulation of blood pH

c.     fuel cellular respiration

d.    elimination of undigested food

e.     integration and coordination of other systems

 

 

 

  1. The parotid gland 

a.     secretes saliva.

b.    is attached to the hard palate.

c.     functions in deglutition apnea.

d.    plays a major role in swallowing.

e.     contains a lot of connective and lymphatic tissues.

 

  1. Which of the following represents a match in small intestine wall structure? 

a.     mucosa – gastric glands

b.    villi – folds of the mucosa

c.     muscularis – two layers; both circular

d.    rugae – folds of mucosa and submucosa

e.     lining – simple columnar epithelium

 

  1. Blockage of the pyloric valve would prevent 

a.     pancreatic juice from entering the duodenum.

b.    chyme from entering the duodenum.

c.     bile from entering the duodenum.

d.    lymph from entering the jejunum.

e.     chyme from entering the large intestine.

 

  1. Which of the following apply to the stomach intestine? 

a.     Secretions from the liver and pancreas enter this organ.

b.    Segmentation contractions occur in this organ.

c.     Little absorption occurs in this organ.

d.    Mixing and propulsion of chyme.

e.     All of these choices apply to the small intestine.

 

  1. The diagram illustrates a structure in the duodenum. What does “E” represent? 

a.     Microvilli

b.    epithelial cell

c.     capillary

d.    lacteal

e.     villus

                                                                                                           

  1. Vitamin D 

a.     is a nutrient in foods.

b.    is water soluble.

c.     is lipid soluble.

d.    is necessary for the body’s utilization of nutrients.

e.     All of these choices are correct.

  1. Excess sugars are stored in the liver and muscles. This storage form is called

a.     adipose tissue.

b.    glucose.

c.     energy storage.

d.    glycogen.

e.     All of these choices are correct.

 

  1. The most favored source of energy from food is

a.     glucose.

b.    pyruvate.

c.     fat.

d.    cellulose.

e.     creatine.

 

  1. Renin functions in 

a.     preventing blood loss.

b.    white blood cell production.

c.     increasing blood pressure.

d.    production of the hormone aldosterone.

e.     excretion of nitrogenous wastes (such as urea).

 

  1. The first portion of the renal tubule is

a.     glomerulus.

b.    ascending loop of Henle.

c.     proximal convoluted tubule.

d.    distal convoluted tubule.

e.     descending loop of Henle.

 

  1. Which of the following pressures tends oppose filtration at Bowman’s capsule? 

a.     tubular pressure

b.    renal pressure

c.     colloid osmotic pressure

d.    glomerular capillary pressure

e.     None of these choices is correct.

 

  1. ADH mainly targets cells in the 

 

a.     proximal convoluted tubule.

b.    loop of Henle.

c.     distal convoluted tubule.

d.    glomerulus.

e.     collecting duct.

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following fluid compartments contains the smallest volume of water? 

a.     plasma

b.    interstitial compartment

c.     intracellular compartment

d.    extracellular compartment

e.     lymph

 

  1. Low blood pressure under resting conditions results in decreased urinary output because 

a.     aldosterone levels increase.

b.    low blood pressure stimulates renin secretion.

c.     the amount of angiotensin II formed is increased.

d.    baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to decrease ADH secretion.

e.     baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to increase ADH secretion.

 

  1. PTH 

a.     promotes the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract.

b.    promotes osteoclast activity in the bones.

c.     reduces calcium excretion by the kidneys.

d.    increases extracellular calcium ion levels.

e.     All of the above are functions of PTH.

 

  1. The seminal vesicles  

a.     are in the scrotum.

b.    are inferior to the bulbo-urethral glands.

c.     are located in the abdominal cavity.

d.    is isolated from the accessory glands of the system.

e.     regulate a temperature that is suitable for normal sperm development.

 

  1. Shortly before ovulation, 

a.     the level of LH rises.

b.    GnRH receptors upregulate.

c.     corpus luteum degenerates.

d.    the granulosa cells become corpus luteum cells.

e.     estrogen increases but progesterone decreases.

 

  1. What does “B” on the diagram represent? 

a.     ovary

b.    vagina

c.     cervix

d.    uterus

e.     uterine tube