Pollution in Freshwater Fisheries

I already have 2 pages of the essay done, I just need you to add 2 more and maybe revise the first 2 pages I did. introduction may need to be rewritten as well. In total I need about 1000 words including what I have done already. I will attach the 2 pages I have done as well as a rubric that must be followed completely or else points will be taken off. More information for why dams and pollution are bad for freshwater fisheries all together. Must find a conservation policy. Describe the natural resource issue, including the natural resources and ecosystem services affected and the relevant ethical, economic, and ecological factors that influence the conservation of these resources, and Present a short argument in support of a conservation policy that addresses this issue in some way. In your argument, name the type of policy tool (or economic tool) you have chosen (your conclusion) and explain your reasoning for selecting it (your premises). Short Argument: How dams and pollution have contributed to a decline in fisheries In present day, they are used most prevalently for storing water to compensate for fluctuations in river flow or in demand for water and energy. The second is to raise the level of the water upstream to enable water to be diverted into a canal or to increase hydraulic head which is the difference in height between the surface of a reservoir and the river downstream. The creation of storage and head allow dams to generate electricity also known as hydropower. The electricity generated by dams is to supply water for agriculture, industries and households, to control flooding. On top of this, dams assist river navigation by providing regular flows and “drowning rapids.” (McCully) Other reasons for building large dams include reservoir fisheries and leisure activities such as boating.  While the above may sound good, long term studies of how these dams negatively affect wildlife, specifically salmon, hadn’t been done until dams like the 4 lower snake river dams had been created. Understanding the possible effects of dams and the stakeholders involved is crucial for building dams as well as removing them. Over the last two decades, federal agencies have spent “more than $8 billion in failed attempts to restore Columbia and Snake River salmon.” (Bogaart) Each year more than “$550 million” (Bogaart) in funding, more than twice that of even Everglades restoration, goes to NOAA Fisheries, the Army Corps of Engineers and other federal agencies for this effort. This money has been spent on ridiculous schemes such as loading salmon into trucks and driving them around the dams, all the while ignoring cost-effective solutions for recovery like partial removal of the lower Snake River dams. I believe that specific dams cause more damage than good to wildlife fisheries. There are various reasons why dams should be removed. By removing dams it will restore natural seasonal flow variations, restore natural riverine habitats, remove obstruction to upstream and downstream migration, removes turbines that kill fish, allows debris, small rocks and nutrients to pass below the dam which creates healthy habitat and eliminates unnatural temperature variations below the dam.  Not only are dams a major problem, but water pollution is also a big contributor to a decrease in fisheries. When nutrients wash into waterways through storm runoff, they deplete oxygen in the water that fish need to survive. Nitrogen and phosphorus usually enter streams and lakes from fertilizers, dog waste, and other sources. Over time, these nutrients build up in the water and promote algae and water plant growth, and as they decay, they lower oxygen levels in the water which has potential to cause something called a dead zone. Algal blooms can be harmful to fish as they feed upon algae, toxins accumulate within the fish, and when a predator fish consumes that fish, they too are consuming higher toxin levels. Bogaard, Joseph. “Why Remove The 4 Lower Snake River Dams?” Save Our Wild Salmon, www.wildsalmon.org/facts-and-information/why-remove-the-4-lower-snake-river-dams.html. McCully, Patrick. “Dams: What They Are and What They Do.” International Rivers, 2001, www.internationalrivers.org/dams-what-they-are-and-what-they-do.

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