Transatlantic Relations in the 21st CenturyMr. Tommy SteinerFinal Paper AssignmentSubmission Date: Sunday, March 14, 2021, 09:00am (Israel Time)The final paper assignment makes up 100% of the final grade.Please read carefully the instructions below and write two of the following four essaysoutlined below in Hebrew or in English (50 points each).This assignment requires the submission of two originally and individually authoredessays of 1,200-1,500 words (each). Each essay should include a well-structured openingwith a thesis statement referring to the question. You should explain, substantiate, andsupport the thesis statement throughout by elaborating the main and relevant concepts,positions, historical processes, events, and examples, including those discussed in classand in the course readings.In these essays, you are not required to cite references, but the essays must be thepersonal and original work of the submitting student. Notwithstanding, students areallowed to work in groups on the assignment before beginning to write them, but eachstudent must write the assignment herself (or himself). Submitted assignments with verysimilar phrasing will be disqualified and could lead to disciplinary action. Furthermore, acompleted assignment shared with other students and used for the purpose of copying –will be disqualified. In addition, false reporting or presenting fabricated informationregarding an assignment and/or for the purpose of obtaining a postponement orexemption is aviolation of the disciplinary code. Violations will lead to disciplinary action.Please submit both essays in one WORD file (*.docx) via the Moodle system no later than09:00am on March 14. Do not upload any other type of file.There is only one submission date. There will be no extensions other than those approvedby the Students’ Secretariat. With regards to late submissions –• Assignment submitted up to one week after the original submission date will limit themaximum grade to 80 and the assignment will be graded on a scale of 0-80.• Assignments submitted later than a week after the original due date will beconsidered as not submitted.If you have any questions, you may contact Tommy (email@example.com). Please allowsufficient time to revert to you. Substantive questions regarding the assignment will notbe addressed in the final 24 hours before submission – other than urgent technicalmatters.Do Well !!!Essay #1“Had the United States and the EU devised and implemented a more effective strategy topromote peace, development and regional cooperation in the Middle East after the end ofthe Cold War, they could have prevented the turmoil and violence engulfing the Middle Eastsince the onset of the so-called “Arab Spring.” Discuss and opinionate. In your essay, explainthe main features (objectives, mechanisms, and outcomes) of Western engagement in theMiddle East in the post-Cold War era (1990-2010). Why did the EU and the US invest so manyresources in the Middle East? Why did these efforts fail? With the benefit of hindsight – whatcould have the EU and US done to prevent the regional turmoil?Essay #2The three main theoretical schools/paradigms of IR thought – Realism, Liberalism andConstructivism – offer different readings of the Atlantic Alliance (or community) and of thechallenges it faces. These readings reflect dissimilar explanations concerning the basicrationale and driving force of NATO and different expectations concerning its future. Forinstance, while Realists view NATO as an alliance, Liberals would focus their attention onNATO as an institution (some of them would also highlight the role of domestic politics).Constructivists, on their part, would pay attention to ideas and norms and view NATO as acommunity.This theoretical debate has “real world” implications: What do these different theoreticalperspectives tell us about the future of the Alliance and the continuing relevance of NATO inface of a resurgent Russia? Did Russia’s intervention in Ukraine and ongoing actions againstUkraine re-unite the Alliance or have they exposed different views and interests? Discuss andopinionate and refer also to NATO’s “Enhanced Forward Presence” mission. In your answer,explain the differences in the theoretical categorizations of NATO offered by the three schoolsof thought.Essay #3“Contrary to former President Trump’s repeated statements, Europe’s “burden sharing” hasactually improved. Many European allies have increased their defense spending towards the2% benchmark. The track record of NATO’s European allies’ role in, and contribution to, theWar in Afghanistan shows that European allies have played an increasing role. Actually, theratio of European troops in Afghanistan has increased since the end of combat operations inAfghanistan and the transition to “Resolute Support Mission.” In NATO’s current deploymentto Eastern Europe and the Baltics – “Enhanced Forward Presence”, European allies play amajor role too.” Opinionate and discuss. In your essay, assess Europe’s current “burdensharing” compared to previous periods – such as the Cold War and post-Cold War periods andoperations (Balkans – 1990s; Afghanistan 2004-2010). Has Europe’s “burden sharing”improved? Is Europe doing enough for its own defense?Essay #4The United States and Europe have been simply “out of sync” well before former PresidentTrump entered office and the change of guards in the White House will not make all thechallenges disappear. Since the beginning of the 21st Century, the United States and Europefind it increasingly difficult to respond to regional and global challenges in a coordinated andtimely manner – be it Russia’s aggression in Ukraine and its alleged interference in Westernelectoral politics, the rise of China, or the turmoil in the Middle East. What are the reasonsthat have brought the Transatlantic allies to this point? What are the likely drivers ofTransatlantic relations? Can Europe and the United States become once again “in sync”? Whatwould it take? In your essay, use current examples to substantiate your assessment.